Diabetes

INTRODUÇÃO: 14 de novembro é o dia mundial do diabetes. A Rede Globo Nordeste se engajou na campanha, através de noticiários e esclarecimento nesse dia. Na reportagem, foram citados alguns fatores de alerta que favorecem o aparecimento do diabetes, entre eles: Hipertensão, triglicerídeos altos, frequentes infecções genitais, aumento de peso, alterações nos rins. Foi sugerido fazer monitorização de glicemia com frequência, porque controlando a doença, o paciente poderá ter uma vida normal.

DEFINIÇÃO DO DIABETES: É uma doença metabólica e se origina de vários fatores, que concorrem para a diminuição de insulina ou incapacidade da mesma agir no organismo, acarretando aumento de glicose (açúcar) no sangue.

No diabetes, o pâncreas torna-se incapaz de produzir o hormônio insulina, que por sua vez, aumenta a glicose no sangue, provocando o diabetes.

TIPOS DE DIABETES:

PRÉ-DIABETES: Significa que o paciente tem predisposição para desenvolver o diabetes. É um estágio intermediário entre o estado saudável e o diabetes tipo 2, que é o diabetes que se desenvolve.

No diabetes tipo 1 (congênito), não há pré-diabetes e o paciente pode desenvolvê-lo em qualquer faixa etária.

DIABETES TIPO 1: Esse tipo de diabetes é caracterizado por uma anomalia do sistema imunológico, fazendo com que o pâncreas perca a capacidade de produzir a insulina necessária ao bom desenvolvimento do organismo. O diabetes tipo 1 incide em 5 a 10% dos pacientes diabéticos.

DIABETES TIPO 2: Esse tipo de diabetes é determinado por duas causas: Diminuição da produção de insulina e uma desordem na sua ação (resistência à insulina). 90% dos pacientes diabéticos são do tipo 2.

DIABETES GESTACIONAL: É o tipo de diabetes que se manifesta na gestação, podendo ou não persistir após o parto.

OUTROS TIPOS DE DIABETES:

Diabetes por defeitos genéticos ou uso de medicamentos;

Diabetes por doenças do pâncreas: pancreatite, neoplasia, hemocromatose, fibrose cística  etc.

Diabetes decorrentes de drogas e produtos químicos: diuréticos, corticoides, betabloqueadores, contraceptivos.

EXAME PARA INVESTIGAR O DIABETES:

Glicemia de jejum:

Valores normais: 75 a 110 mg/dl (miligramas de glicose por decilitro de sangue)

PRINCIPAIS SINTOMAS DO DIABETES TIPO 1:

Urina frequente, fome frequente, muita sede, fadiga, mudança de humor, náusea, vômitos.

PRINCIPAIS SINTOMAS DO DIABETES TIPO 2:

Infecções frequentes, alteração visual (visão embaçada), feridas sem cicatrizar, má circulação nos pés, furúnculos.

OBSERVAÇÃO: Todos os portadores de diabetes tipo 1 deverão tomar insulina todos os dias. Nem todos os portadores de diabetes tipo 2 necessitam dessas doses.

CUIDADOS QUE OS DIABÉTICOS DEVERÃO TER:

Evitar aparecimento de lesões nos pés e demais áreas;

Manter uma alimentação saudável;

Utilizar medicamentos prescritos pelo médico;

Praticar exercícios físicos;

Controlar a glicemia;diabetes

Seguir orientações médicas.

 

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